liver function testsMedical analysis

Estimation of total protein in serum – liver function tests

Estimation of total protein in serum

Estimation of total protein in serum

Introduction

  • Total protein make about 7 % of body weight
  • Blood proteins includes albumin , globulins , fibrinogen , regulatory proteins and other types
  • Total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins in blood (albumin and globulin)
  • Albumin is synthesized by liver using dietary proteins and removed from blood by kidney
  • All plasma proteins are synthesized in the liver except Ȣ – globulins , there are different types of globulin called alpha , beta and gamma globulins , Ȣ – globulin made by immune system
  • Amino acids are the building block of proteins , in turn proteins are the building block of cells and body tissues


Principle

  • Total protein test depend on Biuret method for determination of protein concentration
  • Biuret reagent is made of NaOH , KOH , and CuSO4 together with Na – K tartarate 
  • It is a blue reagent turns to violet in presence of protein in alkaline medium

Normal range

  • Total protein : 6.5 – 8 g %

Reagents

  • CuSO4 : color reagent
  • NaOH , KOH , Na – K tartarate : alkaline medium (working solution)
  • Standard protein


Procedure

Reagent Test Standard Blank
Serum 1 ml
St- protein 1 ml
Water 1 ml
Working solution 2.5 ml 2.5 ml 2.5 ml
Mix , stand for 5 min , then read at 546 nm

Serum total protein level increased in:

  • Dehydration
  • Chronic infection or inflammation as virus C , B
  • Hemolysis

Serum total protein level decreased in:

  • Malnutrition or malabsorption
  • Liver disease
  • Glomerulonephritis


Notes

  • Total protein = serum albumin + serum globulin
  • Serum globulin (g %) = total protein (g %) – serum albumin (g %)

Normal range of globulins: 2.8 – 3.2 g %
Serum globulins level increased in:

  • Liver disease
  • Infection
  • Kidney disease

Serum globulins level decreased in:

  • Liver dysfunction (α , β globulins)

Ratio of albumin / globulin > 1

  • It must be greater than 1
  • Increased in high protein in diet
  • Deceased in liver dysfunction
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